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    Date of Reishi mushroom (box 2)


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    عدد المساهمات : 300
    تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2010

    Date of Reishi mushroom (box 2)

    مُساهمة  صلاح العسيلي في الإثنين يوليو 26, 2010 7:37 am

    medical and
    nutritional science fields, the information below should be treated
    as observations gathered over time based on individual cases, and
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    not a guarantee or endorsement of Reishi’s effectiveness. For
    specific case reports or data, please consult a physician with an
    expertise in Chinese medicine. Research studies and additional
    information can be obtained through libraries or found on the
    internet. You may also contact your local health organizations.
    Conditions Related to Blood Circulation
    It has been thought that red Reishi extract can reduce the
    coagulation of blood by decreasing platelet aggregation (cells that
    form clots), similar to aspirin. In addition, it is possible that it is able
    to transform red blood cells, and make them more malleable to
    travel through blood vessels at greater ease, reducing the chances
    of clogging, which could lead to strokes and heart attacks.
    Improved circulation is extremely important in diabetics, who
    invariably develop small artery disease.
    Heart Conditions
    Several cardiovascular benefits have been demonstrated
    from the regular consumption of red Reishi. These include:
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    • correction of some arrhythmias due to stress
    • lowering of "BAD" LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides (another type of
    blood fat)
    • lowering of blood pressure - demonstrated in published human studies
    • improved blood circulation, with all of the benefits outlined above.
    Liver Disorders
    The primary function of the
    liver is to metabolize and detoxify
    drugs and poisons.
    In addition, it is where
    cholesterol and certain proteins are
    synthesized. Damage to the liver
    can cause an accumulation of toxins and by-products in the body
    that cause jaundice (yellowing of the skin), weight loss, fatigue, loss
    of appetite, and many other maladies. Research has shown that red
    Reishi has hepato (liver) protective properties. Regular
    consumption of red Reishi may indeed rejuvenate the liver cells,
    allowing it to perform its vital functions.
    Digestive Disorders
    Red Reishi consumption has also been shown to decrease
    gastric acid, which, in excess, can lead to the formation of peptic
    and gastric ulcers. It has also been shown to regulate bowel
    movements, relieving symptoms of constipation and diarrhea, such
    as that found in irritable bowel syndrome.
    Red Reishi has shown some benefits in those suffering
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    from asthma, chronic bronchitis, and common allergies. By
    blocking the mediators of inflammation, symptoms of asthma can
    be alleviated, and by boosting the immune system, colds and flu's
    are reduced, leading to less exacerbations of asthma. Red Reishi
    products have been used as an anti-tussive to suppress persistent
    coughing, and it is used as an expectorant to loosen up secretions.
    It is thought that red Reishi may even enhance the regeneration of
    tracheal and small airway epithelium - particularly important in
    patients who smoke and suffer from chronic bronchitis (smokers'
    Kidney Regulation
    The kidneys are responsible for maintaining the proper
    balance of chemicals and elements such as sodium, potassium, and
    other electrolytes in the body. It also filters the blood constantly
    and maintains a constant acidity (pH) and molecular concentration.
    Red Reishi may aid in the regulatory functions of the kidney.
    Cancerous cells are marked by their abnormal proliferation
    of growth. While it is still unclear how normal cells become
    cancerous, there has been some suggestion that it may be due to a
    viral origin, or perhaps a change in the body's natural defense (the
    immune system). Recently it has been thought that certain
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    individuals are genetically predisposed to cancer. Therefore it is
    not surprising that as one ages and the immune system weakens,
    one becomes more susceptible to certain forms of cancer.
    Regular consumption of red Reishi has been shown to
    stimulate the production of interferon and interleukins I and II,
    potent natural anti-cancer substances produced in our body.
    Furthermore, researchers claim that polysaccharides called Beta-
    1,3-D-glucan and Beta-1,6-D-glucan have been shown to possess
    powerful anti-tumor properties. These polysaccharides can also
    activate macrophages, the essential immune cells in our body’s first
    line of defense against microbial intruders such as viruses, bacteria
    and yeast.
    Diabetes is a disease of poor blood sugar regulation. There
    are 2 types of diabetes. Type I is due to a lack of insulin production,
    which is a hormone secreted by the pancreas - its function is to
    regulate blood sugar. Type II is usually adult onset, and is due to
    insulin resistance. This form is more commonly related to obesity,
    poor nutrition, and lack of exercise. The mainstay of treatment for
    diabetes is either insulin injections or oral medications, both of
    which have its inherent side effects. Red Reishi has blood sugar
    lowering properties, and can possibly help regulate glucose levels
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    in borderline Type II cases, without the side effects of medications.
    Prostate Disease
    As men age, there is a normal increase in the size of the
    prostate, called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This can lead to
    a decrease in the normal urinary outflow, frequent night-time
    urination, and other prostate problems. In addition, advanced age
    significantly increases the incidence of prostate cancer. The
    prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test is increased in both
    conditions, and it is used to screen, detect, and monitor prostatic
    disease, including prostate cancer treatment. There is evidence
    that red Reishi, when combined with other herbs, can significantly
    reduce Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels. The mechanism is
    unknown, but it can occur as early as one month after treatment.
    HIV Disease
    Anti-HIV substances and protease inhibitors (a major class
    of drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS) have been found in red Reishi
    mushrooms. There is anecdotal evidence that it lowers the viral
    load and increases the CD4 counts.
    In conclusion, while medical research and individual case
    studies have shown red Reishi to be effective in treating numerous
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    conditions and diseases, it is important to emphasize again that the
    greatest proven benefit of regular red Reishi consumption is the
    enhancement of your body’s overall health.
    Through purification, improved blood flow, immune
    modulation, detoxification, rejuvenation, and revitalization, red
    Reishi can enhance the body's ability to combat a myriad of
    diseases, particularly those that occur more frequently with
    advanced age.
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    How Red Reishi can Improve Your
    Physical Appearance
    Obsesity can affect one's self confidence and have a
    negative impact on one's self-image. In addition, it can lead to
    diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Studies have found that
    regular consumption of red Reishi helps the body cleanse itself of
    accumulated toxins and excess lipids (fat).
    In addition to regulating the body’s way of handling fat,
    red Reishi products can also improve the condition of the skin. The
    anti-aging properties of red Reishi may be related to improved
    blood flow and increased delivery of nutrients to the skin. It may
    also help in the reparation process of sun-damaged skin. People
    who have taken Reishi regularly have noticed a decrease in pimples
    (acne) and other blemishes.
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    Control acne
    Minimize fine lines
    lighten age spots
    Regular consumption of red Reishi also has a calming and
    stress-reducing effect on the body, and appears to improve sleep
    patterns, without the sedation commonly seen with medications. It
    should be clear to the reader that these benefits combined, will
    improve one's physical appearance.
    Regular red Reishi intake combined with a healthy diet and
    active lifestyle, can effectively facilitate your body’s return to a
    normal, healthy state.
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    On the Road to Better Health with Red Reishi
    If we do not actively maintain a healthy lifestyle, our
    bodies will deteriorate, and we will gradually become accustomed
    to this state of declining health. We may lose track of weight that
    we have gained and not notice the decline in our natural well being
    until a significant problem arises. It is thought that over time, an
    inactive body accumulates toxins, and this contributes to the
    deterioration of overall wellness.
    Consuming a red Reishi product on a regular basis is
    thought to clear some of these toxins. In the beginning, a user
    may experience a “resetting” period, where his or her body will
    exhibit signs of "cleansing". The excretion of accumulated poisons
    and an increase in various metabolic activities are normal signs of
    recovery and they indicate that the regulatory properties of red
    Reishi are taking effect.
    Common symptoms of "recovery" may include dizziness,
    sore bones, skin irritation, change in bowel movements, including
    diarrhea and constipation, and pimple-like blemishes appearing on
    various parts of the body.
    The time frame for these symptoms may vary from person
    to person, but they generally last only a few days - until the body
    adjusts to a higher state of wellness and becomes accustomed to
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    the regular intake of red Reishi. Daily consumption of large
    amounts of water is recommended. It is important to point out
    again that these physiological reactions are only temporary, unlike
    side effects from medications.
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    Clogged blood vessels may impede blood flow
    Steady blood flow of red blood cells
    The Cultivation of Red Reishi
    Research has shown that the health-enhancing properties
    of Reishi are strongest when the plant is fully mature, a state that is
    almost impossible to find in the wild due to the unstable
    environmental conditions that exist in the natural habitat of red
    Reishi plants.
    As a result, the majority of red Reishi products on the
    market today use mushrooms that have been cultivated in
    hothouses. Cultivation of red Reishi originated in Gunma-Ken,
    Japan, where the Mayuzumi family mastered the technique of
    culturing Reishi on Japanese oak logs.
    Wood pulp, wooden box, and natural wood log cultivation
    are three common methods of cultivating the red Reishi plant. In
    wood pulp cultivation, wood pulp is placed in a glass bottle and the
    Reishi fungi are added. After three months, this growing method
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    Wood pulp cultivation in glass or plastic
    Wood log cultivation in wood boxes
    Glass bottle
    Red Reishi
    Red Reishi
    Wood pulp
    Wooden box culitvation method
    Wood pulp
    will usually yield small
    mushrooms of relatively poor
    quality. The second method,
    wood box cultivation, involves
    grafting the fungi into a wooden
    log that is then placed in a
    wooden box. Reishi of mediumsize
    and moderate quality are
    generally produced through this
    method after six months.
    Large red Reishi of
    superior quality are most
    commonly grown using the
    natural wood log method, which
    is the most complex form of
    cultivation. The process begins
    with the culturing of a high
    quality Reishi fungus strain in test
    tubes for about 85 days. The
    germinating fungi are then
    inserted into holes drilled into
    selected high grade logs between
    26 to 30 years old. These logs are
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    The flow of natural wood log cultivation
    Japanese woodlogs are drilled with
    holes before mycelium are placed into it
    Woodlogs are placed in greenhouses
    for inoculation
    Inoculation period
    Superior quality Red Reishi
    Red Reishi
    High grade
    wood log
    Drilling of
    small holes
    Insert germinating
    fungi into holes
    Test tube
    then placed in a greenhouse and buried under nutrient-rich soil for
    5 months. During this growth period, the Reishi fungi absorb
    almost all of the nutrients from the soil. After five years of use, the
    soil must lay dormant for 2 to 3 years to allow replenishment of
    nutrients into the soil before it can be used again.
    Growing conditions require continued monitoring to
    ensure a high quality Reishi harvest. Temperature, humidity,
    carbon dioxide, light intensity and nutrients are all closely
    monitored to maintain optimum growth conditions. The
    greenhouse is sprayed with moisture daily to stimulate growth and
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    Reishi crops during growing period in greenhouses
    Wood log with
    germinating fungi reishi Nutrient-rich
    maintain a humidity of 90 to 95%. This sprayed moisture is sanitized
    to prevent the Reishi from being eroded by bacteria. Most Japanese
    companies are required to follow strict agricultural safety
    guidelines and abstain from the use of exotic pesticides.
    The plants are grown for another 100 days until they
    mature to their full size. Eventually, the mushrooms produce a
    thick coating of spores and spraying is stopped when the
    mushrooms release their spores into the air. Finally, the Reishi grow
    for an additional two weeks before being harvested.
    A healthy and mature red Reishi plant is distinguished by
    its large size, thick cap and overall weight. Although Reishi
    mushrooms grow larger with age, they are best harvested at the
    height of maturity when they are fresh and moist inside; older
    plants may be larger in size, but they are also usually too dry and
    brittle to be effective.
    To prepare Reishi for use in health products, the
    mushrooms are cut into small pieces and boiled for two hours. This
    process is repeated three times to completely extract the medicinal
    properties of the red Reishi. The medicinal extract is prepared
    using a low-temperature vacuum condenser and an air-sprayed
    drier to transform it from a concentrated liquid form to a powder
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    state for transfer into capsules. Ambient temperature and moisture
    are strictly controlled during the drying process to maximize
    product effectiveness.
    In summary, the effectiveness of a red Reishi plant in
    enhancing one's health depends on four main criteria:
    1) the quality of the plant's mother fungi;
    2) the method of cultivation;
    3) the growing conditions;
    4) the harvest time.
    Thus, it is clear that companies who use a more complex
    method of Reishi cultivation like the natural wood log method are
    more likely to satisfy these four criteria, and produce superior red
    Reishi crops.
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    Selecting the Right Reishi Product for You
    As with other natural supplements that serve as
    preventative measures against degenerative diseases and
    conditions, red Reishi products are most effective the sooner they
    are included as part of your regular diet/vitamin program.
    Although the impact of poor habits and diet on your
    health can accumulate substantially over time, the positive benefits
    of red Reishi are also cumulative. Thus, if you begin using Reishi in
    your mid-thirties, you may strengthen your body and immune
    system to better withstand the trials of time as you age.
    There are a growing number of product choices every year
    available to red Reishi consumers, and the variety of brands and
    product forms can easily be overwhelming. Due to the growing
    recognition that companies in Japan are producing exceptionally
    high quality red Reishi products, there is a disturbing trend among
    some manufacturers who misrepresent their products as being
    produced in Japan, when they are actually produced in China or
    North America, where there is little regulation of the red Reishi
    A recent study in Choice magazine, published by the Hong
    Kong Consumer Council*, aimed to help consumers choose the
    best Reishi product by comparing the effectiveness of active
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    ingredients in 32 Reishi products
    available in the marketplace.
    The study determined that
    polysaccharides were the most
    important health-enhancing
    ingredients in Reishi products. It
    then compared the potency of
    the 32 products based on their
    polysaccharide content level.
    According to the test results, a
    certain red Reishi product made in Japan had the highest amount
    of polysaccharides amongst all the test products at 29.7%, while
    other Reishi products had as little as a 0.06% polysaccharide
    content level.
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    Choice magazine issue#286, published
    by the Hong Kong Consumer Council*
    * The Consumer Council was established in April 1974 in Hong Kong. The function of the
    Council is to protect and promote the interests of consumers of goods and services and
    purchasers of immovable property. Some objectives of the Council are to conduct tests,
    surveys and research for the evaluation of goods and services to users; promote public
    awareness of consumer rights and responsibilities through publicity and media campaigns;
    and publish a monthly magazine “Choice” for the provision of independent and objective
    consumer information.
    The magazine also mentioned a study that compared
    boiling the red Reishi slices themselves to prepare tonics for
    consumption versus the commercially-made product. The study
    team used 15 grams of red Reishi slices and boiled them in 300 cc
    (about one bowl) of water for an hour. The analysis showed that
    the amount of polysaccharide extracted was about 0.068 grams,
    and the study concluded that this boiling method by the consumer
    is labour intensive and actually more expensive than consuming
    ready-made industrially processed Reishi products.
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    What to Look for in Reishi Products
    Here are some important factors to consider in your search for the
    most effective and safest red Reishi product:
    The amount of polysaccharides contained in the product
    Since the polysaccharides has been identified by
    researchers as being the most active health-enhancing ingredient
    in red Reishi, you should choose a product with the highest
    polysaccharide content for greater potency.
    The reputation of the brand name and product history
    The art of Reishi cultivation has been developed and
    refined over the course of thirty years, and many of the leading
    Reishi product manufacturers were at the forefront of the research
    and development involved in creating the best cultivation method
    to yield the highest quality Reishi. You should therefore invest
    some time in researching a company’s website or background
    carefully before purchasing its products.
    The manufacturer’s country of origin
    While red Reishi cultivation is now possible around the
    world, companies in Japan are still regarded as producers of
    premium red Reishi because of strict government regulation of the
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    industry. Some unscrupulous companies have tried to capitalize
    on this by designing their product packaging to appear to be of
    Japanese origin - one should be wary of a product that does not list
    the name and address of its manufacturer.
    Tips for Improving Your Diet While Using Red Reishi
    In addition to using red Reishi products on a regular basis, you can
    also greatly improve your overall health by altering your diet.
    Nutritionists recommend the following:
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    • Refrain from using refined sugar. Substitute with pure
    honey, or fruit sugar instead.
    • Avoid processed foods (e.g. canned foods, instant noodles,
    soda pop, etc.)
    • Eat a healthy mix of natural foods from each food group to
    maintain your nutritional balance.
    Include all types of vegetables in your diet, especially those
    with stalks and roots.
    • Drink more water. Try to drink 8 glasses of water a day.
    This will prevent cellular dehydration and enhance your
    metabolic functions to rid your body of poisonous waste.
    Reishi Spores & Mycelium
    The effectiveness of using the fruiting body of red Reishi
    mushrooms in health supplements has made many companies
    eager to exploit other aspects of the Reishi mushroom for use in
    health products.
    Recently, there has been much debate about the issue of
    whether supplements prepared by extracting oil from Reishi spores
    have more medicinal value than traditional red Reishi products. In
    the past, the oxidation of Reishi oil was shown to create an
    unpleasant odor and become harmful to human cells. However,
    current marketers of these Reishi spore oil products claim to have
    perfected the technology of cracking the spores and preventing
    the lipid oil collected from being spoiled by oxidation.
    The Hong Kong Consumer Council's Choice magazine has
    thus far declined to comment on the medical efficacy of Reishi
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    Reishi spore Cracked spore
    spore byproducts, stating that consumers should wait for more
    scientific research and clinical studies on these products before
    making a decision.
    Another recent trend in
    the Reishi industry is the use of
    mycelium in place of mature
    Reishi mushroom extract in
    certain products. Mycelium is the
    stage between the spore and the
    mature mushroom in the Reishi
    life cycle. Reishi mycelium
    products are typically produced
    by mixing a small amount of mycelium with sterilized soybeans,
    rice, or other grains in a water slurry. The resulting mixture is then
    dried and ground into a powder for use in tablets or capsules.
    While mycelium may possess some health-enhancing
    properties, specialists point out that all the research conducted
    thus far has centered on the various health benefits provided by
    the Reishi mushroom itself, and not the mycelium. Therefore,
    similar to the situation concerning spore oil products, there is
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    Reishi mycelia
    currently insufficient evidence to support the claim that myceliumbased
    products can yield the same benefits as products made with
    the red Reishi's fruiting body.
    While mycelium use has become prevalent in North
    America, the lack of time-tested cultivation techniques for the
    substance has resulted in most mycelium cultivation to take place
    in greenhouses, using nutrients of less-than-optimum quality.
    Growing Reishi mycelium in vats of grain slurry is considerably
    faster and cheaper than taking the Reishi mycelium through the
    next stage of growth to produce natural mature mushrooms. In
    contrast, growing mature Reishi mushrooms from mycelium
    requires 6 to 8 additional months in large, shaded greenhouses
    equipped with sophisticated sterility, temperature, and humidity
    controls. Many producers find the additional cost and time
    necessary to organically cultivate the Reishi to maturity by this
    method too costly, and opt for the cheaper vat method, which may
    dilute the mycelium's potency, if any.
    Although this cost-cutting practice is widely accepted in
    America, it is looked upon with disdain in China and Japan; to this
    day, companies in both countries where Reishi use has the longest
    history refuse to use mycelium in health products.
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    Consumers who are interested in using products derived
    from either Reishi spore oil or mycelium are advised to carefully
    research these topics, and consult a qualified health care
    professional before consuming any such products.
    C h a p t e r 1 0
    Resources You Can Use for More Information
    about Reishi
    Japan Reishi Association
    The Japan Reishi Association (JRA) is an international nonprofit
    organization supported by industry leaders dedicated to
    helping growers and manufacturers maintain the highest
    standards of product quality and business practices in the Reishi
    industry worldwide.
    The Japan Reishi Association’s primary goal is to inform
    the general public about Reishi, Reishi-related health food
    products, and product manufacturers. In addition, the JRA is also
    committed to holding manufacturers and marketers of Reishi
    products accountable for claims of Japanese origin. To this end, the
    JRA strives to set and aid in the enforcement of industry standards
    for product quality and ethical business practices by working
    together with authentic Reishi product manufacturers in Japan and
    international government organizations to alert the public about
    products and manufacturers that fail to meet these standards.
    If you have any questions about a Reishi product or
    manufacturer (such as the authenticity of a specific product you
    have purchased), you can contact the Japan Reishi Association at
    info@japan-Reishi.org or by calling their toll-free number at 1-866-
    J-REISHI (1-866-573-4744).
    R e s o u r c e s
    For a list of resources with more information about Reishi products,
    clinical trials, and the latest industry news, visit the JRA website at
    www.japan-reishi.org or www.reishi.com
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    2. Wasser SP, Weis AL. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring
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    3. el-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Nakamura N, et al. Anti-HIV-1 and
    anti-HIV-1 protease substances from Ganoderma lucidum.
    Phytochemistry 1998;49(6):1661-1657
    4. Kim RS, Kim HW, Kim BK. Suppressive effects of Ganoderma
    lucidum on proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
    Mol Cells 1997;7(1):52-57
    5. Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC, et al. The anti-tumor effect of
    Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from
    activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer
    6. Hijikata Y, Yamada S. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on
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    7. Kim HS, Kacew S, Lee BM. In vitro chemopreventive effects of
    plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes,
    Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor). Carcinogenesis
    R e s o u r c e s
    8. Komoda Y, Shimizu M, Sonoda Y, et al. Ganoderic acid and its
    derivatives as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors; Chem Pharm Bull
    9. Hikino H, Ishiyama M, Suzuki Y, et al. Mechanisms of
    hypoglycemic activity of ganoderan B: a glycan of Ganoderma
    lucidum fruit bodies. Planta Med 1989;55(5):423-428
    10. Lee SY, Rhee HM. Cardiovascular effects of mycelium extract of
    Ganoderma lucidum: inhibition of sympathetic outflow as a
    mechanism of its hypotensive action. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)
    11. Kim DH, Shim SB, Kim NJ, et al. Beta-glucuronidase-inhibitory
    activity and hepatoprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum. Biol
    Pharm Bull 1999;22(2):162-164
    12. Yoon SY, Eo SK, Kim YS, et al. Antimicrobial activity of
    Ganoderma lucidum extract alone and in combination with some
    antibiotics. Arch Pharm Res 1994;17(6):438-442.
    13. Chen K, Li C. Recent advances in studies on traditional Chinese
    anti-aging material medica. J Tradit Chin Med 1993;13(3):223-226.
    14. van der Hem LG, van der Vliet JA, Bocken CF, et al. Ling Zhi-8;
    studies of a new immunomodulating agent. Transplanation
    R e s o u r c e s

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